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Thread: Important Events in History

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    Important Events in History

    Time - 2001 BC

    8000 BC Invention of the wheel, most likely. With the cultivation of grains in river valleys, the age of agriculture begins. Wine and beer is produced.

    7000 BC Use of pottery.

    6000 BC Linen is made from the flax plant.

    5000 BC Mesopotanian civilisation. Development of irrigation. Cultivation of maize. Use of copper.

    4241 BC Earliest recorded date in Egyptian calendar.

    4000 BC Meslim, King of Kish, rules Sumeria (Southern Babylonia). Development of plowing and taming of horses.

    3760 BC First year of Jewish calendar.

    3500 BC First phonetic writing and formation of numbering system by Summerians, who also were among the first to use wagons for carrying goods and people.

    3000 BC The Megalithic tombs constructed Newgrange, Ireland. Building of temples and canals in Sumeria, ruled by Ur-Nina. Fourth Egyptian Dynasty founded by Snefru. The Epic of Gilgamesh, in poetry form, written (One of the oldest works of literature. Fragments of the Epic of Gilgamesh were found on clay tablets in the 19th century in the ancient city of Nineveh. It tells the story of a semidivine king named Gilgamesh who sought immortality. The king was probably based on an historical king of Uruk in Mesopotamia..)

    2850 BC Fu-Hi becomes first Emperor of China.

    2800 BC Development of the calendar. First recorded revolution: people from the Sumerian city of Lagash overthrew bureaucrats who were lining their own pockets but kept raising taxes.

    2680 BC Great Pyramid at Giza completed.

    2650 BC Akkadian Empire in Mesopotamia founded by Sargon.

    2637 BC First year of the Chinese calendar.

    2600 BC Sixth Dynasty in Egypt ends the ancient Egyptian Empire. Pepy II reigns 94 years, longest reign in history.

    2550 BC The Old Egyptian Empire under Khufu, his son Khafre, and his grandson Menkure, start the construction of the great pyrimids. Invention of glass.

    2500 BC Minoan Age of Cretans begins. Domestication of camels. First libraries appear in Assyria, Egypt and China. Soap used. (The first mention of soap was on Sumerian clay tablets dating to this time - the soap was made of water, alkali and cassia oil.)

    2400 BC Ur-Engur establishes Dynasty of Ur in Sumeria.

    2350 BC Mesopotamian kings lay down the first recorded law, known as the Urukagina's Code. (The code has never been discovered but it is mentioned in other documents.)

    2300 BC Paper made from the papyrus plant in Egypt.

    2100 BC First Dynasty of Babylon established by Sumu-Abu. Abraham born in Ur in Mesopotamia.

    2050 BC The earliest known written legal code, Ur-Nammu's Code, dates from this time. Although called Ur-Nammu's Code, it is generally agreed that it was written by his son Shugli. (The code allowed for the dismissal of corrupt men, protection of the poor, giving testomony under oath, and the ability of judges to order damages be paid to a victim by the guilty party.)



    2000 BC - 1001 BC

    2000 BC Twelfth Egyptian Dynasty begins, with Thebes as capital. Hammurabi, King of Babylon, reforms law and introduce agricultural improvements. Abraham leaves Ur.

    1860 BC Construction of Stonehenge.

    1850 BC Earliest known written legal decision. (A clay tablet reveals the case of the murder of a temple employee by three men. The victim's wife knew of the murder but remained silent. Eventually, the crime came to light and the men and woman were charged with murder. Two witnesses testified that the woman was not part of the murder, that she had been abused by her husband, and that she was worse off after her husband's death. The men were executed in front of the victim's house but the woman was spared.)

    1800 BC Kyksos rules Egypt,

    1750 BC Hammurabi, a king of the the Babylonian Empire, establishes laws for many aspects of daily life, including marriage, divorce, trade, and prices. The code's punishments include cutting off of a finger or hand for theft, cutting out a tongue for defamation, and cutting off a man's lower lip if he kissed a married woman. The code included the law of retaliation, from which came the phrase "an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth."

    1700 BC Assyria becomes independent of Babylonia.

    1500 BC The Book of Job written by an unknown Israelite. The sacred works of Hindiusm, the Vedas, a collection of hymns is written in Sanskrit.

    1446 BC The Pentateuch (the first five books of the Bible) are written between 1446 and 1406 BC.

    1400 BC Use of iron by the Hittites in Anatolia (Asia Minor).

    1415 BC Amenophis IV of Egypt replaces old religion with sun worship.

    1375 BC Ikhnaton develops monotheistic religion in Egypt.

    1355 BC Rameses I begins Nineteenth Dynasty in Egypt.

    1300 BC Moses received The Ten Commandments directly from God.

    1280 BC India's Laws of Manu written, regulating almost all facts of rules, from contracts to criminal law. It also forms the basis of the caste system, where people were classified by their social standing. Members of higher caste were punished more severly that those of lower castes. (Various dates of recording given, even as late as 880 BC.)

    1250 BC Israelite exodus from Egypt during the reign of King Ramses II.

    1200 BC Rameses III leads in Twentieth Egyptian dynasty.

    1193 BC Greeks destroy Troy.

    1186 BC The Trojan War.(Troy was attacked a number of times.)

    1020 BC Saul becomes the first Israelite king.

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    The year 0 was not recorded
    1 - 32 AD

    AD stands for "Anno Domini," a Latin phrase meaning "in the year of the Lord" and referring to the years after that.

    04 Death of Herod.

    06 Judea becomes a Roman province. Candidates for political office in China must take civil service exams. Emperor Cheng is succeeded by Emperor Ngai.

    09 Battle of Teutoburger Wald, the Rhine River is established as the boundary between Latin- and German-speaking worlds.

    14 Augustus Caesar, first Emperor of the Roman Empire, dies, succeeded by his stepson, Tiberius.

    15 Livy, the Roman historian, publishes the story of Romulus and Remus, the first who becomes a god and declares that it is the will of heaven that Rome be the capital of the world.

    23 Greek geographer Strabo publishes Geography, a work covering the world known to the Romans and Greeks at the time of Emperor Augustus - it is the only such book to survive from the ancient world.

    26 Pontius Pilate becomes Roman procurator of Judea.

    27 Probable the year that Jesus Christ was crucified. (The exact year of the crucifixion is disputed; often quoted as 33AD.)



    33 - 64

    34 Apostle Paul begins missionary journeys.

    37 Emperor Tiberius dies, succeeded by his nephew, Caligula.

    41 ? Dioscorides writes about medicinal herbs. Emperor Caligula is murdered, succeeded by Claudius, a lame man with a speech impediment.

    43 The first London bridge is a temporary pontoon bridge built by the Romans.

    50 Heron of Greece invents steam power. St Paul begins missionary work in Europe. Pedanius Dioscorides writes the first pharmacology text, De Materia Medica (it became the primary source on pharmacology for the next 16 centuries).

    53 The Parthians annihilate an army of 40,000 Romans.

    54 Nero becomes last Caesar (of Caesar family) of Rome.

    63 ? Death of St Paul in Rome (some sources quote St Paul's execution in 67AD)

    64 Great fire in Rome. Persecution of Christians begin.



    65 - 99

    65 First persecution of Christians in Rome. The Gospel according to St. Mark, the earliest of the four Gospels, is written.

    68 Nero commits suicide.

    70 Jerusalem destroyed by Titus. The third Temple is burnt and destroyed

    71 Colosseum building starts in Rome (finished in 79). Spartacus and other slaves crucified on the Appian road to Rome.

    73 Siege of Massada.

    74 Chinese Emperor Zhao dies at age 22, succeeded by another child, Emperor Xuan.

    77 Around this year, the last book of the Old Testament, the Book of Esther, is translated into Greek.

    79 Emperor Titus dedicates the Roman Colosseum; the amphitheater has 160-foot walls and 50,000 marble seats. Mount Vesuvius erupts, killing thousands in Herculaneum and Pompeii.

    82 According to Suetonius, the Emperor Domitian made women gladiators fight by torchlight at night.

    95 Renewed persecution of Christians.

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    100 - 132

    100 Jewish Christians forced to leave the Jewish fold.

    105 Chinese government servant named Ts'ai Lun invents paper, made from hemp waste, mulberry fibers, rags, and other materials. (It would take many centuries for this invention to travel west, reaching Samarkand, Central Asia, in 751 and Baghdad in 793, arriving in Europe in the 12th century.)

    107 Persecution of Christians.

    117 Hadrian rules Rome (till 138), establishes a postal system and codifies Roman law.

    122 Julius Caesar conquers England. Emperor Hadrian begins construction on a 117 km (73 mile) long wall between England and Scotland. (Parts of the Hadrian wall still stands.)

    125 Christians persecuted.

    127 Alexandrian astronomer, cartographer, and mathematician Ptolemy (Claudius Ptolemaeus) publishes Almagest, in which he catalogued 1,022 stars - the previous known number of stars being 850. His work influenced astronomy studies for 14 centuries.

    132 First seismoscope developed in China; it detected an earthquake 400 miles away.



    133 - 164

    136 Jewish revolt suppressed - dispersion of Jewish race.

    140 Han Jing-di's son becomes Emperor Wu of China.

    149 Chinese dictionary of 10,000 characters produced by Hu Shin. Rome begins third war against Carthage, a war that Carthaginians do not seek.

    155 Iberian Lusitani nation rebels against Rome, who offer peace and land, trap them, killl 9,000 and enslave 20,000. To allow a longer campaign, the Roman Senate moves New Year from March 15 to January 1.

    158 Claudius Galen writes that arteries carry blood, and explains the action of muscles and nerves.



    165 - 199

    166 Maccabaean rebellion against Seleucid rule begins in Judah.

    167 Antiochus IV dedicates the temple in Jerusalem as a shrine to Zeus.

    168 Rome divides Macedonia into four republics and forbids contact between the four.

    171 Rome declares war against Perseus of Macedonia.

    180 Greek physician Galen publishes Methodus Medendo, a system of medicine that will influence medical thinking for over a thousand years.

    183 Hannibal commits suicide rather than be captured by the Romans.

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    200 - 232

    200 Palestinian scholar Judah ha-Nasi compiles tracts of the Mishnah, beginning the creation of Jewish Talmudic law. Rome boasts 1.5 million inhabitants, most living in 3- to 8-story-high insulae, apartment blocks made of brick, wood or rubble.

    203 Origen, aged 22, succeeds Clement as leader of the Christian school in Alexandria.

    213 Completion of the Baths of Caracalla, which contain reading rooms, running tracks, and public gardens covering 20 acres. Gunpowder invented by Chinese alchemists mixing saltpeter with sulfur at the right temperature.

    219 Founding of the Sura Academy in Babylon.

    226 Ardashir begins Sassanid Dynasty, rulers of Persia until the seventh century.



    233 - 264

    238 In this year there were 6 Roman Emperors: Maximin, Gordian I, Gordian II, Balbinus, Pupienus Maximus & Gordian III.

    250 Greek mathematician from Alexandria, Diophantus, publishes Arithmetica, the first known algebra text, a treatise in 13 parts of which 6 survive. About 5% of Romans have become Christian.

    258 Emperor Valerian beheads Cyprian in front of thousands; those near him throwe pieces of cloth to catch his blood.



    265 - 299

    271 First form of compass used in China.

    272 Three Christians beheaded near a hill outside of Paris. The hill will later be called Montmartre, the Mountain of the Martyrs.

    276 Mani, a sage from Persia who calls himself a apostle of Jesus Christ, is executed for preaching Zoroastrian dualism with Christian theology, angering followers of both religions.

    284 Diocletian becomes Emperor of Rome and proclaims himself the earthly representative of Rome's supreme god, Jupiter.

    299 Christians across Roman empire now about 10% of the population.

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    300 - 332

    300 The church council of Elvira, Spain, prohibits intermarriage between Jews and Christians, also forbidding them to eat together.

    301 The Kingdom of Armenia is the first nation to make Christianity its official religion.

    303 Emperor Diocletian orders the persecution of Christians.

    312 Constantine defeats Maxentius at Battle of Milvian Bridge and becomes the ruler of the western Roman Empire. He believes the Christian God has guided him to victory.

    313 Edict of Milan issues by Constantine I (Constantine the Great, the first Christian Roman emperor - he converted on his death bed in 337), allowing Christians to practice their faith in the Roman Empire.

    325 Constantine the Great summons the Council of Nicaea, which establishes that God the Father and God the Son (Jesus Christ) are of the same essence. Constantine introduces Sunday as a holy day in a new 7-day week. He also introduced movable (Easter) and immovable feasts (Christmas).

    326 Constantine the Great and his mother Helena start a perdio of building churches in Palestine to mark the places considered holy to Christianity, including the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem and the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem.

    330 Founding of Constantinople (which became Istanbul in 1900), built above the ancient site of Byzantium, which became the centre of Christianity.



    333 - 364

    333 Constantine decrees that Christians of Jewish heritage break all ties with Judaism or be executed.

    335 The Church of the Holy Sepulchre is consecrated on the site of what is believed to be Christ's tomb.

    337 Constantine the Great converts to Christianity on his deathbed, according to Bishop Eusebius.

    341 Ethiopians introduced to Coptic Christianity.

    350 Christianity reaches Ireland.

    359 Under the leader of the Sanhedrin, the Nasi Hillel II, leader of the Sanhedrin, fix the calendar according to a standardised system of calculations (as used today). Previously, the calendar was based on eye witness of sightings of the new moon.

    363 Constantine's grandson becomes emperor, becoming known as Julian the Apostate. H rescinds the law that forbids marriage between Christians and Jews and rescinds the law that bans Jews from entering Jerusalem; he also abolishes privileges that have been bestowed upon the Christian clergy.



    365 - 399

    367 Emperor Julian killed while fighting the Sassanid Empire.

    372 Mahayana Buddhism introduced to Koguryo (northern Korea).

    378 Valens, the Christian emperor of the eastern half of the Roman empire, is defeated by Christian Germans, Goths, at Adrianople.

    380 Co-emperors Gratian and Theodosius decress that the doctrine of the Trinity is the official state religion.

    383 Shapur III becomes king of the Sassanid empire.

    384 Buddhism introduced to the royal families of Paekche (southern Korea) and Silla (central Korea).

    388 Shapur III, the Sassanid king, lifts the persecutions of Christians.

    390 Jerome's Latin Vulgate manuscripts published, containg all 80 books of the Scriptures (39 Old Testestament, 27 New Testament, 14 Apocrypha).

    391 One of the Seven Wonders of the World, the library of Alexandria, is destroyed by fire.

    395 Division of the Roman Empire, when Emperor Theodosius I dies. (His two sons appointed successors: 17-year-old Arcadius given rule over the east; 10-year-old Honorius ruling the west, but ruling from Milan instead Rome.) Augustine is named bishop of Hippo (in North Africa).

    399 St. Augustine of Hippo writes his Confessions.

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    400 - 432

    401 Visigoths begin to attack the northern Italy.

    406 Gunderic, King of the Germanic Vandals, attack towns and cities in Gaul.

    407 Roman legions withdrawn from Britain; Picts, Scots and Saxons invade. The Saxons become rulers of the British Isles.

    410 Goths attack Rome. Alaric lead the Asiatic Huns to attack the Roman Empire, sacking Rome in August. They introduce pants to the Roman Empire, which replace traditional togas.

    414 Changra Gupta II dies.

    421 Bahram V, Sassanid king, begins persecution of Christians. City of Venice is founded by Romans fleeing from Germans.

    430 St. Augustine of Hippo dies as the Vandals besiege his city.

    432 St Patrick returns to Ireland and confronts King Laoghaire who allows him to spread Christianity.



    433 - 464

    440 December 25th was not celebrated as the birthdate of Christ until this year. Also see Christmas

    441 Anglo-Saxons, fleeing Huns advancing on northern Europe, invade Britain.

    446 Vortigern leads Anglo-Saxon mercenaries and Britons against the Picts (from Scotland) and Scots (from Wales).

    449 Angles and Saxons conquer Britain.

    450 Conversion of Ireland to Christianity. (Missionary work started under Bishop Palladius 431, but most Irish people credit St Patrick with their conversion to Christianity.)

    451 Attila the Hun (Hephthalite) crosses the Rhine into Gaul.

    455 Vandals sack Rome with such ferocity that the word vandal will come to mean wanton destroyer.



    465 - 499

    466 Buddhists in China are persecuted by adherents of Confucianism

    475 Emperor Ming is succeeded by his ten-year-old son, Emperor Shun.

    476 The western Roman Empire ends when its last Emperor, Romulus Augustulus, is forced into retirement by German commander, Odoacer, who seizer power. (The eastern Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire, centered in Constantinople, will continue until 1453.)

    480 The Visigoths, whose capital is in Toulouse, extend their rule from the Loire River to Gibraltar.

    481 Clovis I becomes king of the Salian Franks.

    488 Zeno, emperor of the eastern half of the Roman Empire, sends Theodoric with an army of Germans across the Alps against Odoacer.

    493 Odoacer is defeated by Theodoric, who becomes King of Italy.

    496 Clovis baptized as Christian by St. Remy, bishop of Reims.

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    500 - 532

    500 Scriptures have now been translated into more than 500 languages.

    507 Clovis, King of the Franks, defeats the Visigoths at the Battle of Vouille.

    508 Paris (now called Lutetia) established by Clovis as the capital of the Kingdom of the Franks

    511 Clovis, King of the Franks, dies. The Merovingian Dynasty is continued by his sons.

    521 Boëthius introduces Greek musical letter notation to the West.

    525 Dionysius Exiguus (Dionysis the Little), a Roman monk and astronomer, records in his Easter Tables Jesus of Nazareth's birthday as December 25, 753 years after Rome was founded. The error, an incorrect year and date, is repeated in all Christian calendars. Dionysius also left out counting the year 0. See When was Jesus born?

    529 Codification of Roman Law, Justinian's Code, in a series of books called Corpus Juris Civilis, by the Emperor of Byzantine. Many legal maxims would be based on this code, which included the clause, "The things which are common to all (and not capable of being owned) are: the air, running water, the sea and the seashores." The spelling of the word justice originates from Justinian's Code.

    531 Khosru I, of the Sassanian dynasty, comes to power in Persia.



    533 - 564

    533 Believing that he is getting the world ready for the Second Coming of Christ, Emperor Justinian reconquers parts of the Roman Empire.

    534 Queen Hu of China is assassinated. Northern China divides between western and eastern halves of the Wei dynasty.

    537 Saint Benedict of Nursia, the father of Western monasticism, outlines the step for leading a devout life in what is known as the Rule of St Benedict. The Hagia Sophia (Holy Wisdom) is dedicated in Constantinople.

    542 The plague of Europe, known as the Great Plague of Justinian (a bubonic plague) ravages Europe. It would last until 593, killing half the population of Europe.

    543 Byzantine general Belisarius defeat the Vandals in North Africa.

    547 The famous church of St. Vitale in Ravenna, known for its octagonal shape and mosaics of the Byzantine Emperor and empress, Justinian and Theodora, is completed.

    552 Emperor Justinian initiates Europe's silk industry by sending missionaries to smuggle silkworms out of China and Ceylon. Historian Procopius writes Anecdota, littered with scandalous gossip about Justinian and Theodora and their commander, Belisarius.

    556 First written account of the Loch Ness monster.

    560 The Hephthalites of Samarkand are defeated by a Persian-Turkish alliance and vanish as an identifiable people.



    565 - 599

    563 Irish missionary Columba establishes a center of learning on the island of Iona.

    565 Emperor Justinian dies.

    568 The Lombards invade Italy, reaching Milan.

    587 First Japanese Buddhist monastery established.

    589 Emperor Wen of northern China gains control of the sound ending 271 years of division.

    590 Pope Gregory I (the Great) begins the papacy which will reform Europe. He sends monk Augustine to the British Isles. Augustine will lead the conversion of England and found a monastery in Kent town (later known as Canterbury), one of the oldest Anglo-Saxon settlements, dating from the mid-400's.

    592 Emperor Sujun of Japan is murdered by Umako who places his daughter, Suiko, on the throne and makes her nephew, Shotoku, regent.

    594 Shotoku converts Empress Suiko to Buddhism, which becomes the state religion of Japan.

    597 St Augustine of Canterbury introduces Christianity to Britain.

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    600 - 632

    601 The earliest dated English words are 'Town' and 'Priest', both recorded in the Laws of Ethelbert.

    604 A Japanese prince regent writes The Seventeen Articles, the Constitution of Japan. The emphasis is on the prevention of dispute instead of the resolve of disputes as found in Western law. Pope Gregory the Great dies.

    609 ? The prophet Mohammed begins to preach the religion of Islam openly in Mecca (a holy city before the existence of Islam). (Some sources claim year to be 613AD)

    618 Emperor Kao Zu founds China's Tang Dynasty.

    622 Mohammed, founder of Islam, initially hoped that the Jews would recognise him as their prophet but when they did not. Mecca's leaders, who find Mohammed's teachings objectionable, force the prophet to flee to Medina. The flight will be known as the Hegira.(Muhammad and his followers refused bowing toward Jerusalem and began bowing toward Mecca; Muhammad abandoned Saturday as the Sabbath and made Friday his special day of the week.) From Medina, he would try to drive Jewish tribes from Arabia. Mohammed's daughter, Fatima, dies. Her two sons, Hassan and Hussein, will establish the Fatimid Dynasty.

    628 Byzantine soldiers bring sugar from India to Constantinople.

    629 Dagobert becomes King of the Franks. Mohammed returns to Mecca with the Koran (recitation), the holy book of Islam, which records the religion's principles. Islam's Sharia (legal system) forbids the consumption of pork and alcohol. Mohammed's followers circumvent the prohibition against wine by boiling it and adding honey and spices.

    630 Muhammad wins his war with Mecca. People view it as a symbol of the power of his god and convert to Islam. Muhammad adds Mecca's army to his own conquers the rest of Arabia.

    632 Muhammad the Prophet dies.



    633 - 664

    634 Islam's first caliph to succeed Muhammad, Abu Bakr, declares a holy war on Mesopotamia.

    638 Moslem conquest of Jerusalem. Jews allowed to return.

    644 A new religion Tokoyonomushi is introduced in Japan, promoting worshipping a worm, drinking sake, dancing in the streets, and giving away money.

    650 Khazars, mid-eastern people of mixed race, expand westward and capture and sell people, mainly Slavs (origin of the word slave).

    660 Moslem Caliph Abd el Malik builds the Al Aqsa mosque in Jerusalem. The Koran published first time as an arranged completed book.

    661 Ali, the son-in-law of Muhammad, dies of his wounds in an assassination attempt, aggravating a split between his supporters, the Shia Muslims. Their rivals, Sunni Muslims, establish a new caliphate in Damascus, Syria.



    665 - 699

    680 Hassan, grandson of the Mohammed, killed by the army of Caliph Yazid at the Battle of Kerbela.

    681 Kingdom of Bulgaria established when Khan Asparukh and his Bulgar tribes subjugate the Slavs.

    690 Wu Zetian becomes Empress Wu, the only Chinese woman emperor in history.

    691 Abd el Malik builds the Dome of the Rock over the area where the Temple of David had stood in Jerusalem.

    695 First Arab coins minted. Arabs destroy the city of Carthage, ending Byzantine rule in North Africa.

    699 Anglo-Saxon epic poem Beowulf, the oldest English epic) is completed. Non-Arab Muslims now outnumber Arab Muslims.

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    700 - 732

    700 The concept of Zero introduced (although it might have been used by early Babylonians). Porcelein introduced. Fingerprinting in use in China as a means of identifying people. Celts arrive in Ireland from parts of Gaul and Britain.

    702 The Taiho Code is introduced in Japan, ruling the emperor as supreme moral authority and introducing a national tax system.

    710 The capital of Japan is moved from Osaka to the city of Nara.

    711 Moslem conquest of Spain. Jews welcome them as liberators.

    717 Caliph Omar II grants tax exemption to all Muslim believers.

    718 Leo the Isaurian, Emperor Leo III, holds off Muslim attacks on Constantinople for more than a year.

    726 Byzantine Emperor Leo III forbids the worship of icons in an attempt to limit the powers of the monastaries.

    730 Pope Gregory II excommunicates Leo III for his iconoclasm.

    731 Anglo-Saxon scholar monk Bede writes Ecclesiastical History of the English People at his monastery in Jarrow. He numbers the years from the time of Christ rather than from the reign of kings, dividing between BC and AD (or BCE and CE).

    732 The word Europe first mentioned. Frankish forces led by Charles Martel halt the Muslim advance into Europe in the Battle of Tours.



    733 - 764

    735 England's second archbishopric is established in York; Egbert serves as its first archbishop. Small pox epidemic in Japan; over a period of two years wiping out a third of the population.

    738 Boniface begins missionary work among Germanic peoples.

    741 Charles Martel dies, succeeded by his two sons, Carloman and Pepin (Pepin the Short). Carloman would abdicate to become a monk, leaving Pepin as sole ruler of the Kingdom of the Franks.

    748 First printed newspaper appears in Peking, China.

    750 Abu-Abbas al-Sarah founds the Abbasid caliphate, which will control most of the Islamic empire for more than three centuries. Arabian mathematicians begin using numbers that originated in India. In Mexico, the great city of Teotihuacan (Teotihuacán) is destroyed.

    751 Islamic army defeats the Chinese at the Battle of Atlakh, giving Muslims control of the Silk Road.

    754 The Donation of Pepin establishes the papal states and recognizes the right of the papacy to control lands in Italy.

    763 Mansur moves the Abbasid capital to Baghdad.



    765 - 799

    768 Pepin the Short dies, to be succeeded by his son, Charles, who will become Charlemagne, Karolus Magnus, or Charles the Great. The use of horseshoes becomes common in western Europe.

    770 Women are exempted from imperial succession in Japan when the Fujiwara family removes Empress Shotoku after she had fallen in love with a Buddhist monk, Kokyo, whom she had promoted as her chief minister.

    771 Charles becomes king of the Franks. A devout Christian, he also would have four wives and children by five mistresses.

    774 Charlemagne overruns the Lombards in northern Italy.

    775 Charlemagne declares war against the Saxons in Germany.

    778 Basque forces decimate Charlemagne's rear guard in the Pyrenees, inspiring the later epic The Song of Roland. Offa, King of Mercia, extends his power throughout southern England.

    780 Musa al-Kwarizmi (780-850) born in Baghdad. He introduced Hindu-Arabic numerals in his book Kitab al-jabr wa al-mugabalah. Byzantine Emperor Leo IV dies, succeeded by his 10-year-old son, Constantine VI, with his mother Irene as regent.

    787 The Second Council of Nicaea condemns iconoclasm and supports the use of icons in religious worship. Charlemagne learns to read and reproaches ecclesiastics for their uncouth language and 'unlettered tongues.' He orders monasteries to establish reading schools for clergy and laity.

    788 Indian philosopher Shankara theorizes a system that equates the human soul with God.

    791 Buddhism becomes Tiber's official religion.

    794 Emperor Kammu of Japan moves his family to a new capital, Heian-kyo, later renamed Kyoto.

    795 Vikings invade Ireland.

    796 King Offa of Mercia dies.

    797 Irene becomes the first Byzantine empress after ordering soldiers to seize and blind her son, Emperor Constantine VI.

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    800 - 832

    800 Coronation of Charlemagne, king of the Franks and now first Holy Roman Emperor, on Christmas day. Crowned by Pope Leo III as "Augustus, crowned of God, emperor of the Romans" in St. Peter's Basilica in Rome, he would become Charles I of France, called Charles the Great.

    802 Byzantine empress Irene deposed and exiled to the island of Lesbos: minister of finance Nicephorus I succeeds her.

    805 Japanese Buddhist priest Saicho returns from China to Japan and popularizes the medicinal value of tea.

    807 Abbasid caliph Harun al Rashid decrees that Baghdad Christians are to wear a blue badge and Jews a yellow badge.

    808 City of Fez extablished in Morocco by Abbasid King Idris.

    809 Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid dies; he will be memorialized in Arabian Nights.

    814 Charlemagne dies of pleurisy. He is succeeded by his son, Louis I (the Pious).

    829 Nile frozen over (happens again in 1010).



    833 - 864

    840 Emperor Louis the Pious dies. Wuzong becomes emperor of China.

    841 Vikings build a settlement on the south bank of the River Liffey; it will eventually become the city of Dublin.

    843 The three sons of deceased Emperor Louis the Pious sign the Treaty of Verdun, dividing the Carolingian Empire into much of what modern Europe is today.

    850 Toilet paper thought be used first in China. The Taoist book of alchemy, the Classified Essentials of the Mysterious Tao of the True Origin of Things describes gunpowder. Arab scientists perfect the astrolabe, an instrument used to observe celestial bodies.

    858 The Nakatomi family of Japan change its name to Fujiwara. Macedonian missionaries Cyril and Methodius invent the Cyrillic alphabet, used by Bulgarians, Russians, Serbs and others by 863.

    861 Iceland discovered. Scandinavian chief Rurik founds Novgorod and names himself grand prince, inaugurating the Russian royal family that will rule until 1598.



    865 - 899

    867 Byzantine Emperor Basil I establishes the Macedonian Dynasty that will rule Byzantium until 1054.

    868 The world's first printed book The Diamond Sutra is produced in China.

    869 Greek brothers Saints Cyril and Methodius develop the Cyrillic alphabet, based on the Greek alphabet of the time, for the Slavic peoples. (The Cyrillic alphabet is now used in Bulgarian, Russian, Serbian, Ukrainian, and other languages. The original alphabet had 43 letters, but the modern languages have fewer: Bulgarian 30, Russian has 32, Serbian 30, and Ukrainian 33.

    874 Vikings settle in Iceland.

    890 First record of an automatic instrument, an organ-building treatise called Banu Musa.

    896 In England, Alfred the Great ends the threat of the Danes, who return to the mainland or settle in Northumbria and East Anglia.

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    900 - 932

    900 Vikings discover Greenland.

    906 Annam (central Vietnam) attains independence from China.

    912 Vikings and their leader, Rolo, become Christians.

    927 Prince Caslav Klonimirovic drives out Bulgarians, uniting (what today is) Serbia, Montenegro, Herzegovina and Bosnia to found Serbia. Orthodox Christianity is introduced as the state religion.

    933 - 964

    950 Córdoba, Spain is Europe's intellectual center. The Muslim city boasts medical schools, modern libraries and a paper trade. Card playing invented by Chinese harem women.

    960 Mieczyslaw I becomes first ruler of Poland.

    962 Mieszko founds the Piast Dynasty in Poland, convert to Christianity. Eric the Red's family moves to Iceland from Norway.

    965 - 999

    969 Earliest recorded mention of playing cards, found in China. Cairo, Egypt, found by Fatimid Dynasty Shiite Muslims.

    975 Arabs introduce modern arithmetical notation to Europeans, making calculations easier than Roman numerals.

    976 The first recorded use of the zero in Europe. Austria founded when Holy Roman Emperor Otto II gives a margravate to the Franconian count Leopold (Liutpold).

    982 Eric the Red, expelled from Iceland for murder, establishes Viking colony in Greenland. 700 people followed him but only 14 of the 25 ships reach the island.

    987 Hugh Capet is elected King of France. (The Capetian dynasty rules until 1328)

    988 Grand Duke Vladimir of Kiev converts to Christianity, takes the name Basil in honor of the Emperor of Constantinople, marries the Emperor's sister, Anna, and begins a general conversion of Russia.

    990 Musical notation systematised.

    995 Anglo-Saxon (Early Roots of English Language) Translations of The New Testament Produced.

    999 Europeans fear of the end of the world.

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    1000 - 1032

    1000 World population 300 million. Scandinavia and Hungary converted to Christianity. Leif Ericson lands in North America, calling it Vinland. Gunpowder invented in China.

    1009 Muslims destroy Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem.

    1010 The Tale of Genji, the book usually considered as the world's first novel, by Shikibu Murasaki, lady in waiting to the empress of Japan. Nile frozen over - also happened in 829.

    1014 Brian Boru defeats the Vikings at Clontarf, Ireland.

    1023 Paper money printed in China.



    1033 - 1064

    1050 Birth of the Yiddish language, formed out of the meeting between old French and old Italian dialects with admixture of Hebrew words.

    1054 East-West schism in Christianity, the final split separating the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic after centuries of disagreement. In this year Pope Leo IX and Patriarch Michael Cerularius excommunicated each other.

    1065 - 1099

    1066 William the Conqueror, from Normandy in France, invades England, defeats last Saxon king, Harold II, at Battle of Hastings.

    1068 Construction on Cathedral in Pisa begins.

    1073 Pope Gregory VII attacks the problem called simony, the buying and selling of offices in the church, such as paying a large fee to be named bishop. He then decreed an end to marriage among the clergy.

    1077 Windsor Castle built.

    1086 Shen Kua of China writes about the magnetic compass, relief maps and the origins of fossils.

    1088 First modern university established in Bologna, Italy. Universities developed over centuries as "stadiums."

    1095 At Council of Clermont, Pope Urban II calls for holy war to wrest Jerusalem from Muslims, launching the First Crusade the next year. Gilbert Crispin's "A Friendly Disputation" published - a series of discussions on the opposing arguments of faiths between him and a Jew from Mainz.

    1096 First Crusade begins, first of eight until 1291.

    1099 Crusaders capture Jerusalem.

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    1100 - 1132

    1100 Latin Kingdom established by Crusaders, protected by Knights of St John the Hospitaller.

    1107 Chinese money printed in 3 colours to stop counterfeit.



    1133 - 1164

    1146 Second Crusade led by King Louis VIII of France and Emperor Conrad III.

    1147 Moscow built by Prince Yuri Dolgoruky.

    1150 The temple complex of Angkor Wat built by King Suryavarman II in Kampuchea (formerly Cambodia).

    1153 The world's first restaurant opens in Kaifeng, China. (It is still operating.)

    1154 Arab geographer Sharif al-Idrisi maps the known world while in the service of the Norman king of Sicily, Roger II.

    1155 Map of western China printed (oldest known printed map).

    1162 Genghis Khan born.



    1165 - 1199

    1172 King Henry II of England is declared Feudal Lord of Ireland by the Pope.

    1173 Building of the Leaning Tower of Pisa begins.

    1174 Muslims capture Jerusalem.

    1182 Magnetic compass invented. The type of ore that attracted iron was known as magnesian stone because it was discovered in Magnesia in Asia Minor. The discovery of the magnet's use in determining direction was made independently in China and Europe, the latter by English theologian and natural philosopher Alexander Neckam.

    1187 Saladin allows Jews to return to Jerusalem - the first time they would return since the Christians took the city in 1099.

    1189 Third Crusade starts.

    1190 The Louvre Museum in Paris built as a fortress.

    1192 Samurai, the warrior class, and Shoguns emerge as the ruling class in Japan and remained in power with little interruption until the late 19th century.

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